Without Detention: opportunities for alternatives (Detention Action, 2016). The report outlines how international and UK good practices could be built on to develop a systematic approach to migration governance that avoids the use of detention wherever possible, prioritising meaningful engagement with migrants over harmful and costly enforcement.
This ground-breaking Council of Europe Analysis of alternatives to detention in the contex of migration (2018) was adopted by all Member States of the CoE through its foremost human rights body, the Steering Committee on Human Rights, and was noted by the Council of Ministers. It looks at legal and practical aspects relating to alternatives and sets out elements for their effectiveness (page 57), supporting an approach based on engagement rather than enforcement. More info here.
The European Commission’s revised Return Handbook (2017) considers some risks and benefits of alternatives to immigration detention. It recognises that “early intervention and holistic case management focused on case resolution” has been proven to be successful as an alternative to detention. It recommends States aim at: “A systematic horizontal coaching of all potential returnees, covering advice on possibilities for legal stay/asylum as well as on voluntary/enforced return from an early stage (and not only once forced removal decisions are taken).”